Water Treatment Basics

Improving the quality of water involves disinfection plus purification of untreated surface and ground water.

Community Level. A public/private water treatment facility aims to generate water safe to consume and pleasant to taste, whilst making sure that there exists enough water to supply the demands of the community.

Raw, untreated water originates from an underground aquifer (via wells) or surface lakes being a river or lake. It flows or possibly pumped to some rehab facility. As soon as it’s there, the lake is treated beforehand to take away debris - like leaves and silt. This experiences a series of treatment processes, such as disinfection and filtration using chemicals or physical processes, eliminating microorganisms that cause diseases. Once the treatment methods are completed, water flows out through a system of pumps and pipes, which are often called the distribution system.



You will find there’s slight difference water course of treatment at various places, in line with the technology from the plant and water must be processed, however the fundamental principles are typically the same.

Coagulation / Flocculation. On the coagulation state, liquid aluminium sulfate or alum, possibly at times polymer, is placed in untreated/raw water. The amalgamation causes tiny dirt particles in water being fastened together or coagulated. Then, collections of dirt particles join together to make bigger, heavier particles - known as flocs - which are easily removed through filtration/settling.

Sedimentation. When water and floc particles feel the course of treatment, they flow into sedimentation basins where water moves slowly, letting heavy floc particles dip to the bottom. Floc collected around the lowermost the main basin is termed sludge. This goes through pipes to succeed in the drying lagoons. The sedimentation state isn’t contained in Direct Filtration and thus, the floc is taken off through filtration.

Filtration. Water experiences a filter that will remove water particles. The filters contain layers of gravel and sand, along with other cases, crushed anthracite. Filtration gathers the suspended water impurities and raises the efficacy of disinfection. The filters are cleaned on a regular basis by way of backwashing.

Disinfection. Before water goes into the distribution system, it’s disinfected to be sure that bacteria that causes diseases, parasites and viruses is eliminated. Chlorine is employed mainly because it an extremely sufficient in disinfecting and maintaining residual concentration to shield from possible biological contamination contained in the device water distribution.

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